How The Body Systems Work To Keep Us Healthy
Human anatomy is the study of the systems of the body. There are 10 interconnected systems and many organs are part of several of them. They depend on each other to function and also work together to maintain balance, and good health, also known as homoeostasis. None of them can work on it’s own.
Skeletal System – it gives the body strength and shape. It also supports and protects major organs. It incorporates bones, joints and cartilage. There are 206 bones in the human skeleton. 22 fused bones make up a human scull. This bones are made up of tiny cells, from which about a half consists of water. Bones hold marrow inside, soft fatty tissue, that produces red and white blood cells. The cells outside the bone mass are “living” cells and they allow development, growth, release of stored minerals, and repair. There are four types of bones: long, short, flat, irregular.
Cartilage provides support with flexibility and resistance, and acts as padding to soften the pressure from the bones.
Almost half the weight of the human body is made up of the skeletal system.
Muscular System – is made up of tissues that cool and heat the body under the skin. By working together with the skeletal system, when contracting and integrating with the action of joints and bones, they control movement of the body, provide the body posture and joint stability.
There are two types of muscles: involuntary, located inside the body, like muscles in the stomach and intestines – smooth muscles. And heart – cardiac muscle. They are controlled automatically by the nervous system and hormones.
The second type are the voluntary muscles, like the ones in the arms, legs, and back – skeletal muscles. They are controlled by us.
There are about 650 muscles in the human body.
Nervous System – it is one of the most important systems in the body. It controls the coordination of body functions as well as body’s sense of smell, hearing, tasting, seeing and touching.
It is made up of three interconnected systems:
The central nervous system – the brain and the spinal cord – it sends out nerve impulses and analyses information from the sense organs, which tell your brain about things you see, hear, smell, taste and feel.
The peripheral nervous system – craniospinal nerves that branch off from the brain and the spinal cord – it carries the nerve impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands to tell them what to do and how to respond to the environment.
The autonomic nervous system – regulates involuntary action, such as heart beat and digestion.
There are two divisions within this system, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic.
The first one, sympathetic division, controls the flight or fight critical survival response when exposed to stressful situation. It is then responsible for adrenalin production, sending trigger to the liver for more glucose in the bloodstream to increase energy, arterial pressure, redistribution of regional blood flow, thermoregulation, pupil dilation, and increased lung capability via dilated bronchioles.
The second one, parasympathetic division, controls basic everyday organ functions under normal conditions, like heart rate and respiration. It also reduces stress and helps us to relax.
Respiratory System – it is an involuntary system which brings oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide. The organs involved here are nose, trachea, two primary bronchi, lungs, bronchioles, alveolar sacs, and alveoli, where the gas exchange happens.
When taking in the air the little air sacs in the lungs fill up with new oxygen. At the same time the heart pumps blood to the lungs in order to release carbon dioxide and take newly oxygenated blood back to the heart. Here it gets pumped out again at great pressure via arteries to the whole body.
Cardiovascular System – also known as the circulatory system. With the heart and network of arteries and veins, this system is responsible for transportation of oxygen-rich blood, nutrients and water to all organs and tissues in the body, and then removing carbon dioxide and waste created by the cells, out of the body.
The heart beats in an average life time three billion times. Its main purpose is to keep the blood flowing through the body.
The newly oxygenated blood leaves the left side of the heart into the biggest artery called the aorta. Then along the aorta, which divides into smaller arteries, which then divide into even smaller vessels, the blood travels all around the body supplying all the cells with nutrients and oxygen and taking in carbon dioxide and waste back to the heart.
Endocrine system and nervous systems work closely together with cardiovascular system.
Lymphatic System – this system is vital for immunity within the body as the defence system. Its main role is to protect us from and fight infections and diseases, by producing white blood cell substance called lymph, and creating disease-fighting antibodies. It also distributes fluids and nutrients throughout the body and drains excess fluids and protein along a network of vessels.
It is made up of central lymphoid tissue, lymph vessels, lymphocytes, and peripheral lymphoid organs.
Endocrine System – it affects nearly every cell, function and organ in the human body. It’s made up of a group of glands that are responsible for producing and moving hormones through the body. These hormones, or chemical messengers control many body functions like metabolism, growth, mood, sexual development and general chemical co-ordination within the body.
- thyroid gland – located in the neck and stimulated by TSH – thyroid stimulating hormone. Responsible for metabolism, regulation of body temperature, the development of the nervous system, reproductive system, and heart function.
- testes and ovaries – located in and responsible for main areas of the reproductive system.
- adrenal glands – located just above the kidneys. The inner adrenal gland – the adrenal medulla, is responsible for releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine during stressful situations.
- hypothalamus – the head of the endocrine system. It controls and stimulates the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are connected via a system of blood vessels called a portal system. The hypothalamus produces inhibiting or releasing hormones.
- pituitary gland – located just at the base of the brain and attached to the hypothalamus. It is the master gland responsible for body’s activities and release of oxytocin during reproduction and an anti-diuretic hormone ADH, to prevent water loss. It is controlled by the hormones of the hypothalamus.
- pancreas – part of the digestive system. Responsible for regulation of blood sugar levels by secreting insulin and glucagon.
- pineal gland – also known as the “third eye” is located deep in the centre of the brain. Responsible for production of melatonin, which helps maintain circadian rhythm and regulate reproductive hormones.
Digestive System – it is made up of mouth, oesophagus, stomach, liver, large intestines (colon), small intestines and rectum. It is responsible for breaking down food in the small intestines into nutrients like protein, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, and fats, which the body needs for energy, growth, and repair. The nutrients that are used by the body are distributed then evenly by the circulatory system. And the excess food that is not needed or can’t be digested is turned into waste and is eliminated out of the body.
Urinary System – it regulates the body’s internal environment by eliminating waste and extra fluid from the bloodstream, in form of urine. It also keeps stable the levels of electrolytes, such as potassium and phosphate, makes hormones that help regulate blood pressure, makes red blood cells and helps in keeping the bones strong.
It is made up of kidneys, ureters, urethra and urinary bladder.
Reproductive System – this system is responsible for creation of a new life. In women it is made up of the vagina, uterus (womb), fallopian tubes – they carry the egg from the ovary to the uterus, and ovaries, which are glands producing eggs and hormones.
In man the reproductive system is made up of the penis, scrotum and testicles – small oval sex glands. Next the epididymis, a series of small tubes attached to the back of each testicle, which eventually becomes the vas deferens – a large tube that transports sperm to the urethra, the prostate gland and the seminal vesicles, and the bulbourethral glands.
All the body systems are interconnected and they rely on each other to work well and keep internal balance and stability.
Beata was born and grew up in Poland. At the age of 21 she moved to Germany and then eight years later to the UK. She is a passionate entrepreneur driven by burning desire to raise awareness about what we are truly capable of as humans and together with like-minded people, create a better sustainable world for the future generations. She is a mother to two beautiful girls, identical twins Atiya and Caira and wife to Sebastian. She is a Holistic Therapist and Kundalini Yoga practitioner. She is intensively learning and implementing healthy nutrition and natural healing in her family life with great success. She loves travelling and exploring new cultures and meeting new people, fascinated by the diversity and beauty in the world. She thrives from her digital lifestyle and earning money online through affiliate marketing and is extremely dedicated to inspire others to make their dream come true too.